February 18, 2008

Neocolonialism In Niger

Photo of an elderly Tuareg man in Agadez, Niger, by professional photographer Jason Hall, extremeboh, on Flickr.


Neocolonialism In Niger

"France has always sought to destroy the Tuaregs, for no good reason. France divided the Tuaregs between nations, and after Independence directed those she put in power in the new states to keep the Tuaregs always in the margins, and finish by exterminating them. . . . And now, in order to exploit Niger's wealth, France does everything to ignore democracy and quietly steal our uranium. France seeded hatred between the Hutu and the Tutsi, telling the Tutsi they were better and to have nothing to do with the Hutu, while at the same time giving military support to the Hutu military loyalists in power. France is a major manipulator and traitor. The people of Niger have understood France's manners, its salute "between the hands." Leave us in peace." -- SIDI mohamed, Agadez-Niger Forum.

The Tuaregs, like other Nigeriens, have embraced democracy as a way of life. Although Tuaregs in Niger are often described as "tribal," and although they fought in the past for a separate nation, they now consider themselves part of a modern state comprised of several ethnic groups encompassing many kinship-based clans and tribes.

All these peoples in fact have had a long history of interactions with one another, as part of a coherent geopolitical region, long before colonialism.

Today, they join multi-ethnic political parties, and they have come to feel it is their right to vote and elect their rulers. They believe that democracy offers a measure of equality, and a potential for development and real progress that they have not experienced since France invaded their territories a century ago and colonized them. They feel there is an opportunity for inclusion as citizens, which was denied them in the post-colonial military regimes.

They acknowledge that democracy is a new thing in Niger, and that it's had a rough start, with coup d'etats, clanism, government graft and ongoing discrimination being persistent problems up to the present. But they are also positive in their outlook, and hopeful that democracy can bring peace and progress to Niger.

Today, the Tuaregs are standing up for their rights. In a Tuareg-led, multi-ethnic political movement, the Niger Movement for Justice (MNJ), they have proclaimed that France has no place in sending soldiers to support local regimes that have turned into dictatorships and abused their power, destroying the fabric of democratic processes.

According to the MNJ, France wants to maintain its monopoly over valuable resources in its former colonies, and continue to reap the benefits of acquiring cheap uranium, oil and other resources, while giving nothing back to the local populations it is exploiting. France advances payments to the corrupt president of Niger, and these funds then become the carrot that keeps France's fingers in the uranium pie and the oil wells. The President and his cronies pocket the "special funds," while promising the people they will see development. The country receives no benefit. The people in Niger live in abject poverty and receive nothing in return for giving up their precious resources, while France lights up its skyscrapers and heats its homes with electricity made from the uranium they got cheaply in Niger.

Students want to know why: If African countries actually have such a wealth of crucial resources such as uranium and oil, then why are so many Africans living in terrible poverty? If the uranium and oil are worth so much, why isn't there any economic development?

Students want to know why: Why doesn't democracy seem to work in Africa? Is it because Africans are somehow so different from us that they can't understand how democracy works? Why do they let dictators come into power, and why is government corruption so rampant in Africa?

It's easy to see why:

If former colonizers put themselves into exchange relationships with Africans like they do with each other, there would be a more equitable return to Africans for their resources. But they don't do that. Niger gets only 5% of the profits from the uranium, and the Niger President and his associates pocket the money. The West takes corruption for granted and shrugs it off saying it can't be solved -- because it serves an economic purpose for the West.

If former colonizers didn't meddle in African politics and support corrupt regimes financially and militarily, the Africans would have a better chance of establishing a democracy. Africans have the same intelligence as everybody else, and they can see the value of democracy as well as anyone else. Democracy is always subject to problems, but for Africans, they have a special hurdle: Europe hinders democracy by supporting corrupt regimes, because Europe wants to keep the colonial benefit flowing for themselves. This is the essence of neocolonialism. The existence of post-colonial "modern" governments is a smokescreen for the new mode of European control over their former colonies. The parasitism continues.

Today, France has sent French soldiers into Niger -- to the Agadez region, where the MNJ Tuareg-led conflict has developed over the past year -- to help the current corrupt regime in its campaign against the MNJ, in the same way that France sent its troops to Chad last week to help the corrupt regime there.

In the case of the Niger Movement for Justice, this is the only group in Niger that has spoken out openly (on their website) against the problems of marginalization, ethnic hatred, genocide, lack of development and corruption. The only reason they are able to do so is because they are armed rebels: the Niger government refuses to discuss the issues; it has banned freedom of the press; the Niger army has gone among Tuareg civilians to rape, torture and murder them and destroy their livestock (confirmed by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch reports Dec. 19, 2007); the Niger government has arrested and intimidated citizens across the entire population into shutting up about the gross social inequalities and corruption that are keeping the country from becoming a democracy and making progress.

In the days before the genocide in Rwanda, France was supplying the Hutu-led government with weapons, which were then used to exterminate hundreds of thousands of Tutsi men, women and children. The situation in Niger now is beginning to resemble the one in Rwanda: an insecure political elite, corruption, lack of development, overpopulation, food and water insufficiency, lack of jobs, land shortages, severe poverty, malnutrition, mounting ethnic hatred as a result of government media campaigns, and a call for citizens' brigades and extermination of the Tuaregs.

How will democracy become a reality in Africa if Europe continues to interfere in this manner?

Will France be guilty of another Rwanda?

How can we transform the double-talk of neocolonialism into a fair chance for Africans to develop democratic governments, and make some progress on their own terms?

America and the United Nations should condemn France's military intervention in yet another African conflict.

Students want to know why: Why is there so much chaos in Africa? How can it be solved?

The chaos in Africa affects us all. If we cannot promote inclusiveness, development, and democracy in Africa, it will fall on us soon. It is very clear how we must do that. For starters, we must stop supporting dictatorships, and we must start promoting economic exchange that will ensure benefit to entire populations, not to corrupt government officials.


The Tuaregs know the solution to their problem:
the door to democracy
requires inclusion, equal rights,
open discussion, freedom of the press,
and freedom from gross discrimination and genocide.

February 06, 2008

Electricity and the Tuaregs


Photo of a lovely Tuareg girl in Niger, by professional photographer Jason Hall, extremeboh, on Flickr.


Electricity and the Tuaregs

What does electricity have to do with the Tuaregs?

Sometimes, not very often, we wonder where electricity comes from. It's a plug in the wall, and we flip the switch and it's there for us when we need it. But where does it come from, Beyond the Wall? Electricity is kind of mysterious. Is there a factory somewhere that makes electricity? What is it made from?

Less mysterious is the fuel we put in our cars, or at least it seems so. Most of us have heard of oil fields out there somewhere. We know it comes from the earth. There must be big stretches of land where the oil people go to get it and ship it to our gas stations.

France is a country that gets a whole lot of its electricity from a very far away place that's hard to get to -- in the Sahara desert. And Canada is a country that is hoping to get a lot of oil from the same place. Both these countries, just like the U.S., Britain, Japan, China, India, Russia and many other countries, are looking outside their own countries to get fuel, because they don't have enough.

The Sahara has a lot of fuel. There are uranium mines that supply a major portion of the world's uranium. And there are oil fields that have untold quantities of oil to be tapped.

A significant amount of the Sahara's uranium and oil are in a little-known country called Niger (not Nigeria!) that is mostly in the Sahara desert.

Most Americans think of the Sahara as a wasteland, a no-man's land, a place where there are no people because it's so hot and desolate.

So little do we know! In fact, the Sahara has been a busy place for thousands of years. It has been a major network of trade routes from sub-Saharan Africa to the Mediterranean, Asia and Europe.

Many, many years before America existed, and before Britain and France and Russia existed, there were people living in the Sahara who made a living by transporting goods across the desert, for hundreds and hundreds of miles through the massive dunes called ergs, the rugged mountains of volcanic origin, and the flat rocky regions called regs. These people were the Berber-speakers who lived west of the Egyptians, all across North Africa and in many parts of the Sahara. The Sahara has been a busy place, connecting many civilizations, for hundreds and thousands of years.

The Berber-speakers established their own cities in the Sahara, and named nearly every landmark in it. Some of the Berber-speakers were caravaneers; others kept gardens in the oases; and yet others herded camels, goats and sheep in the rural areas between towns and cities of the Sahara.

The descendants of these ancient people still exist. And they still live in the Sahara. Today they are called the Tuaregs. They refer to themselves as Kel Temajeq, the people who speak Temajeq, a Berber language.

In the areas where the oil fields are, the Tuaregs still operate caravans. In the areas where the uranium mines are, the Tuaregs still herd their camels, goats and sheep.

But something has changed. The uranium people and the oil people are making agreements with the rulers of Niger, and giving the rulers lots of money, in exchange for the right to go get the uranium and oil from the lands where the Tuaregs live.

The uranium people have already been at work for 40 years, taking the uranium from Niger and transforming it into electricity in France. Without the uranium from the lands where the Tuaregs live in Niger, French children could not watch their favorite TV shows after school, and office workers could not check their email and send messages back and forth all day. Things would not be very happy if it weren't for the wonderful uranium from the lands where the Tuaregs live.

But the French children and the office workers don't really think much about the fact that watching TV and checking email depends greatly on getting the uranium away from Niger. The uranium people working in Niger want to get the uranium as quickly as possible, without wasting a lot of money. So they let the radioactive waste products spill over into the water that the Tuareg people drink, and the land where they herd their livestock. They ought to take some safety measures and make sure they don't spill the radioactive waste, because it is making the Tuaregs who live there sick. The Tuareg children will not live as long because of it. Some of their parents will die early and leave their children before they have grown up. Their livestock get sick, too from the radioactivity, and the area is no longer safe to live, because of the radioactive dust all over the place.

What is really amazing is that the uranium people from France take the uranium, worth millions of dollars, and don't give anything back to the Tuareg people. They may think they do, but they don't. What happens is that the uranium people give money to Niger's rulers, who live far away, and keep it for themselves and use it for their own purposes. Why don't the uranium people give some of the money directly to the Tuaregs, so they can make their community nicer -- wouldn't that be a decent thing to do? The answer is that the Niger rulers won't allow it. The Niger rulers want all of the money for themselves and their friends. The only way the uranium people can get the uranium, is to give the money to Niger's rulers.

The uranium people need workers for the uranium mines, but they hire very few of the Tuareg people who live near the mines, so that they could make some money. Instead they hire the people that Niger's rulers want them to hire, because otherwise, Niger's rulers wouldn't let them into the country to take the uranium. It's the same with all of the other countries who want to go into Niger and take the uranium. China even built its own city near the uranium mines, so that they could just be by themselves and not be bothered by the Tuaregs.

When the Canadian oil people go to Niger, it will be the same thing. They will have to give money to Niger's rulers, and hire the people that Niger's rulers want them to hire, in order to get the oil.

Most people who use electricity and oil don't really understand this situation. Electricity and oil are basic essentials in modern countries. Many people heat their homes with electricity and oil. In Niger, many homes do not have electricity, and few people own cars to drive. Isn't it ironic that Niger has so much uranium, but so little electricity?

The Tuareg people who herd camels, goats and sheep have to sit up all night in front of a campfire to keep themselves warm. They don't have TV sets and computers. They live in tents, and small mud houses without electricity. They don't have jobs, except to produce the milk they drink, by herding livestock. Many Tuareg families do not have enough to eat, because there have been droughts lately, and because the grain they eat costs so much. In order to buy anything, they would have to sell some of their camels, goats and sheep. And if they kept doing that, they would no longer have any livestock left. Many Tuaregs are impoverished to the point that they cannot even buy the food they need, and they are malnourished and starving.

The Tuaregs live on the only land in Niger that has energy resouces of value on it -- uranium and oil. The Tuaregs have tried to get something back from the uranium that is being taken from their lands. Normal democratic processes are not available to them, and so they have rebelled. The Niger rulers have sent out their army to kill the Tuareg rebels. The army was defeated. They couldn’t make the Tuareg rebels quiet down, so they tried to scare them into silence by torturing and killing innocent Tuareg people who were easy to get to -- the unprotected families. Still, the Tuareg rebels are speaking out, the only way they can, on the Internet. This has angered the Niger government, and they say they won't talk with the rebels about their grievances. In order to provide development to the North, the government would have to use some of the revenues from the uranium mines.

The rebels feel they have a just cause for rebelling, because they made an agreement 13 years ago with the Niger rulers, but Niger's government didn't abide by it, and refuses to talk about it, because they want to keep the uranium money for themselves. Part of the agreement was to allocate some of the money from the uranium for the Tuaregs to build their communities, and to create jobs for Tuaregs. The Peace Accords of 1995 is a legally-binding document. Here is what the agreement said:

Agreement establishing a permanent peace between the Government of the Republic of Niger and the Organization of Armed Resistance (ORA)

April 24, 1995

ARTICLE 22: … the Government is committed to take all necessary steps in order to continue and accelerate the efforts of investment in pastoral zone by the implementation of new development strategies aimed at:

B. In the area of mines and industries: The mines remain a national asset whose benefits should enable the development of all regions. This requires:

Supporting the development of the regional economy by implementing incentives to create new jobs for local people [Tuaregs] who will receive a priority in the recruitment.

Transferring a portion of national resources generated by the mining to local governments [the communities where Tuaregs live].

People who use electricity that's made from the uranium don't really know what is involved in getting the uranium. They don't realize that the companies who get the uranium are taking it from people who are poor, and not giving anything back to them.

The uranium people spend millions of dollars to get the uranium out of Niger. They give thousands of dollars to Niger's rulers who allow them to take the uranium. But they don't give anything back to the Tuareg people, except radioactive waste that's making them sick.

Ethnic hatred is a problem in Niger. But a major contributing factor is the greed of the uranium and oil companies -- and ultimately the people abroad who use these products.

The Tuareg people understand the situation, because it affects them severely. Their rebel leaders have spoken out about it, because they want the government to live up to the agreement that was established 13 years ago. The agreement was very clear: the government was supposed to provide jobs and development for the Tuareg people, by using the uranium money. The agreement was hard won: the Tuaregs fought for several years to get it. Many of their people died, or fled as refugees, trying to get that agreement. The government fooled them: they got the Tuaregs to put down their arms, and then they continued to treat them badly. Now they are refusing to talk about it, and trying to think of ways to kill more Tuareg people by creating an atmosphere of hatred in the country and pitting people against one another.

This week, the uranium company, called Areva, laid off 15 of their local Tuareg employees. Each Tuareg who worked there was supporting dozens of impoverished relatives. It is the middle of winter, and there are no other jobs for them where they live.

Niger's ruling elites are making new demands in its campaign against the Tuareg people, and the uranium company is going along with them.

What about the responsibility of the people who are benefiting from the electricity and oil?

What about the responsibility of the companies who are taking these resources?

What about the responsibility of the government to abide by its agreement?

What about the responsibility of the world powers who helped set up a democracy in Niger? How can they expect democracy to survive in Africa if they do not help keep fledgling democracies functioning as democracies, instead of dictatorships?


Peace Petition "Peace In Niger"

FRANCAIS:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/plpanf07/petition.html

ENGLISH:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/pinnne07/petition.html

DEUTSCH:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/fidrnd07/petition.html

January 23, 2008

Is Warfare A Rational Choice for the Tuareg People?

Is Warfare a Rational Choice?

Those who would argue that all warfare is irrational or "wrong" and that the Tuareg rebels should put down their arms and just "be quiet" can learn something about human inequality and conflict.

Those who do not suffer inequality do not feel it.

Those who suffer from unequal treatment
and deprivation of life's most basic needs,

feel it intensely.

In the end,
if
these urgent concerns of the Tuaregs are not acknowledged
and if their voice is not heard,
because the government has isolated and suppressed the Tuaregs,
and if president Tanjda refuses to negotiate,

* the only meaningful thing that remains *
for the Tuaregs to do,
is to fight.

Read the analysis below to understand why.


January 21, 2008

Peace and Conflict: Why Is the MNJ Fighting?



Photo: Leaders of the Niger Justice Movement (MNJ). Photo credit: MNJ







Peace and Conflict: Why Is the MNJ Fighting?

When faced with a legitimate choice between fighting and not fighting, most of us would prefer not to have to take up arms and fight. Some people have no choice, and are conscripted into a national army to serve in the interests of our country -- sometimes for purposes that they personally may not support. Some people would not take up arms under any conditions whatsoever, whether to serve their country, or even in their own self-defense, even if it meant their demise.

There are those who question the major conflicts in the world today, and others who support them. In both categories, there are those who question the small-scale conflicts of sub-groups within a nation that have taken up arms against their own country.

Let's take a look at the Tuareg conflict to try to understand what the various opinions are, and why the rebels have taken up arms.

Peace Focused on Laying Down Arms

There are some who personally do not agree with taking up arms under any circumstances. You can see such views expressed in the Agadez-Niger Forum, for example, where numerous members argue for a "peace" focused on laying down arms -- both the rebels and the government. There, you will see people expressing the view that "peace" means no violence.

Peace Focused on Negotiations

For others, "peace" involves more than just laying down arms -- it requires negotiations: "Je souhaite aussi que le seul ancêtre (TANJA) qui refuse la paix soit contient de ce qu'il fait et qu'il appel au dialogue dans l'interêt de tous les nigeriens." (I also hope that Tandja, who rejects peace, is happy with what he is doing, and that he will call for dialogue in the interest of all Nigeriens.)

Peace Focused on Forgiveness, Tolerance, and Not Holding Grudges

And for others, "peace" is even more complex: "Nous ne saurons jamais progresser si nous n'avons cette hauteur de pardonner, de tolerer de débattre et de jetter la rancune dans la rivière." (We will never know how to progress if we don't forgive, tolerate debate, and throw away our grudges in the river.) Some people might take this perspective even further, to "turn the other cheek," and take the blows without resistance.

Peace Focused on Calm and Quiet

For yet others, "peace" involves a society that is stable, calm and "stays quiet." For example, one member posted: "Espérons que cette année sera synonyme de paix et de quiétude au Niger." (Let's hope that this year will be synonymous with peace and quiet in Niger.)


WHAT PEACE MEANS TO TUAREGS:

Patience Is a Major Virtue Among Tuaregs

For most Tuaregs, peace has all of the above meanings. Tuaregs are a very forgiving people. One of their core values is tezaydert -- Patience. Tuaregs feel it is very important not to react in anger, but to display calm at all times. One can see this in their interactions with one another. Tuareg parents do not beat their children or their wives -- something we see all too frequently in many other cultures, including America and Europe. Even in the case of adultery, a Tuareg husband does not beat or kill his wife, as is known to happen in many other societies. He may confront the male adulterer in a duel to settle his case. But he will not assault his wife or children. Tuareg men value patience above all else. Tuareg men feel it is extremely important to remain in control of their emotions, and to not display personal anger through physical violence, except very infrequently, man-to-man, in certain situations that call for the settlement of a serious score such as adultery. In Tuareg day-to-day life, there is a noticeable lack of displays of anger and violent behavior. This gives a very different feel to someone who has been raised in a culture where parents punish their children physically, and husbands slap and hit their wives. Tuaregs are rarely known to do that sort of thing. Such a physical outburst would upset the peace in a Tuareg household, and would result in a great deal of social ridicule across the community. Patience is one of the major priorities among Tuaregs. It's easy to understand how this is adaptive, since Tuaregs live in very small communities or camps of just a few households, and need for everyone to work together cooperatively for the survival and well-being of the group, and avoid inter-personal violence. Tuaregs value patience -- but patience can sometimes be pushed to an unbearable limit, and in the case of the current warfare, this is what has happened.

Tuareg Warfare

The Tuaregs have a history as renowned warriors, fighting in the past from atop their swift dromedaries in the Sahara, with swords and lances, and now with modern weaponry, showing great expertise and an inestimable knowledge of battle in the desert terrain. This is a different kind of violence from inter-personal violence within a community or household. There are very few societies in the world where the people do not fight to take or defend territory, or to control traffic through their lands, and the Tuaregs historically have been expert at warfare in the Sahara. We cannot make an exception of the Tuaregs based on their warfare, since nearly all societies practice warfare.

Those of us who disdain warfare on any grounds are apt to view Tuareg warfare as irrational or "wrong." In that case, we would also have to examine our own countries' practices of warfare and imperialist actions, and accept the fact that historically, Tuareg warfare has not been so different from our own wars. Those who view Tuareg warfare as "wrong" would likely be of the opinion that the warfare of any state is "wrong."

In the past, some warfare has been viewed as the right thing to do. For example, most Americans would agree that the War of Independence was the right thing to do. American Minutemen took up arms against the British colonizers and won their right to autonomy. Numerous other countries have a similar history, and many nations celebrate their Independence Day. Nearly all Americans felt that World War II was the right thing to do. Some Americans feel that the current warfare in the Middle East is the right thing to do, although some are not sure, and some disagree.

Why the Tuaregs Are Fighting Today

The Tuareg rebellions of the early 20th century were a form of resistance to colonization and oppression by the French.

The Tuareg rebellions of the 1990s were, in part, an attempt to gain an independent state comprised of traditional Tuareg territories in Mali and Niger, in response to marginalization and oppression by post-colonial governments.

The current Tuareg rebellions, however, are not aimed at establishing an independent country. They have taken up arms for other reasons, as citizens of modern democratic countries, Mali and Niger, to get some negotiations going, since normal channels of grievance haven't worked.

In Niger, the Tuareg-led Niger Movement for Justice is fighting for justice -- fair and equal treatment of all Nigeriens, and incorporation of the Tuareg people as equal citizens. The members of MNJ say that the Tuareg people have been treated very badly for some decades, and have been politically and economically marginalized within the country. The results of this ethnic marginalization can be seen in unequal distribution of development funds and relief aid. Schools, hospitals, wells, roads, and jobs are severely lacking in Tuareg territories. Niger is a very poor country, but the people who are getting the worst of it, according to MNJ, are the Tuareg people, because of their ethnicity. The Tuaregs feel this inequality especially, because they live on land that is rich in natural resources -- uranium and oil, among others. Niger is one of the foremost suppliers in the world today of uranium; the uranium is in the middle of Tuareg territories; and yet, the Tuaregs live in abject poverty, with high infant mortality, malnutrition, food insufficiency, lack of education and development, and joblessness. Their drinking water and pasture lands have become polluted from the radioactive waste that the uranium companies have spilled on their land.

The MNJ feels this situation should be rectified. Their rebellion in the 1990s resulted in negotiations, and a peace agreement that required the government to provide development, jobs, health care, education, and incorporation of Tuaregs into governance and the military. But thirteen years later, the government of Niger has not come through with their end of the agreement. The Tuareg people are still suffering, and there is no sign of any improvement. The government denies that there is any problem, and refuses to discuss it through normal, democratic channels.

Why Can't They Just Lay Down Their Weapons and Be Peaceful?

The Tuaregs have taken up arms *in desperation,* because they can't get a voice in their democratic country. They continue to be marginalized, nothing has been done to move forward with the terms of the peace agreement signed 13 years ago, the government won't listen to their problems, and they feel they simply have no other choice left to them.

To understand their perspective further, we can learn something from David Kaplan's article, "The Coming Anarchy" (1994). In his article, Kaplan discusses current conflicts around the world, particularly in Africa. Warfare has a lot to do with resource scarcity. And Niger is the Poorest Country in the World( IRIN, 2007; UNDP Human Development Report, 2006). Food insecurity is an annual problem.

In America, it seems inconceivable that a group would take up arms because they have insufficient resources, except perhaps in areas where people are living below the poverty level -- gang wars in impoverished inner-city ghettos, for example. Most of us eat three decent meals a day, and have an income that supports a lifestyle that is unfathomly luxurious by Nigerien standards.

Middle-class Americans and Europeans will find it shocking that "a large number of people on this planet, to whom the comfort and stability of a middle-class life is utterly unknown, find war and a barracks existence a step up rather than a step down" (Kaplan, 1994). As Martin van Creveld says in his book The Transformation of War, "Just as it makes no sense to ask "why people eat" or "what they sleep for," so fighting in many ways is not a means, but an end" (p. 161) -- fighting itself becomes the only meaningful act left in a society where people don't have enough to eat, and not enough basic needs are getting met such as jobs and health care.

Kaplan expresses it best in his "stretch-limo" analogy: "Think of a stretch-limo in the potholed streets of New York City, where homeless beggars live. Inside the limo are the air-conditioned post-industrial regions of North America, Europe, the emerging Pacific Rim, and a few other isolated places with their trade summitry and computer-information highways. Outside is the rest of mankind, going in a completely different direction" (Kaplan 1994).

In Niger, it's especially pressing on the Tuaregs, who live on land that is rich in resources -- worth millions in uranium revenues -- and yet they are denied any benefit. The government has shown itself to be seriously corrupt -- enough to result in a vote of no-confidence in 2007 (IHT, May 2007). MNJ alleges that the President, Tandja, has stolen uranium funds that were designated for development in the North, and put them in his own foreign bank account (MNJ, Dec. 9, 2007). Ethnic hostility has been heated up, MNJ alleges, through government "hate campaigns" against the Tuareg people on national TV, radio and on the Internet (MNJ, July 14, Sept. 27, Oct. 5, Nov. 1, Dec. 4, 2007). The government has sent its army out without proper direction, and the result has been illegal arrests, torture and massacres of innocent civilians (Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch, Dec. 19, 2007). The government has isolated the Tuareg people from the media, and banned relief aid and humanitarian efforts from reaching them (IRIN, Dec. 10, 2007).

From the Tuareg perspective, they are being treated like prisoners on their own land. The resources are there, on their land, but they cannot receive any benefit. Humanitarian aid has been cut off to them. The rebels are men who have decided to try the only thing left that might help their people get a voice, fighting.

Is Warfare a Rational Choice?

Those who would argue that all warfare is irrational or "wrong" and that the Tuareg rebels should put down their arms and "be quiet" can learn something about human inequality and conflict. Those who do not suffer inequality do not feel it. Those who suffer from unequal treatment and deprivation of basic needs feel it intensely.

In the end,
if
these urgent concerns of the Tuaregs are not acknowledged
and if their voice is not heard,
because the government has isolated and suppressed the Tuaregs,
and if president Tanjda refuses to negotiate,
* the only meaningful thing that remains *
for the Tuaregs to do,
is to fight.


Sources:

Agadez-Niger Discussion Forum
Jan. 1, 2008.
http://www.agadez-niger.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=2235&highlight
=

Amnesty International
Niger: Extrajudicial executions and population displacement in the north of the country.
http://www.amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/niger-extrajudicial-executions-and-population-displacement-north-country
December 19, 2007.

IRIN
Niger Humanitarian access cut to north. Dec. 10, 2007.
http://allafrica.com/stories/200712101727.html

IRIN
Niger: Humanitarian Country Profile. February 2007.
http://www.irinnews.org/country.aspx?CountryCode=NE&RegionC

Human Rights Watch
Niger: Warring Sides Must End Abuses of Civilians. December 19, 2007
http://hrw.org/english/docs/2007/12/19/niger17623.htm
retrieved on the Internet on January 3, 2007

International Herald Tribune (IHT) - Associated Press
Niger's government dissolves after no-confidence vote. May 31, 2007.
http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/06/01/africa/AF-GEN-Niger-Government-Dissolved.php

Kaplan, Robert D.
The Coming Anarchy. The Atlantic Monthly. Feb. 1994.
http://www.TheAtlantic.com/atlantic/election/connection/foreign/anarcf.htm

Niger Movement for Justice - Blog (MNJ)
The man worth 3.5 million. December 9, 2007.
http://www.m-n-j.blogspot.com/

UNDP
Human Development Report. 2006.
http://hdr.undp.org/xmlsearch/reportSearch?y=2006&c=*&t=*&k=&orderby=year

van Creveld, Martin
The Transformation of War. Free Press. 1991
http://www.amazon.com/Transformation-War-Martin-Van-Creveld/dp/0029331552/ref=si3_rdr_bb_product