March 04, 2008

Niger: Insidious Return to a "State of Exception"


Photo: Issouf ag Maha

Photo Credit: mairie16.paris.fr


The Insidious Return to a "State of Exception"


by Issouf ag Maha

March 3, 2008


[Translator's note: In Carl Schmitt's legal theory, a "State of Exception" is like a state of emergency, except that the ruler has managed to acquire the authority to act outside of Constitutional law, claiming to be for the public good.]


Today, with the benefit of hindsight, it is not entirely clear why Tandja escalated the attack on Iférouane into a war. How has this soldier, who some people consider a most pathetic politician, been able to undertake, despite the reluctance of an entire population, a fratricidal conflict that threatens to engulf the country? If one assumes the colonel's game is succeeding, we should ask ourselves what are the motives that are guiding his approach.


Who Benefits From This Crime?


First Hypothesis:


In twenty months, President Tandja [of Niger] will complete his second term. The Nigerien Constitution does not permit him to run for a third. Tandja Mamadou was a member of the Supreme Military Council, the military junta that overthrew [former President] Hamani Diori and imposed thirteen years of dictatorship on Nigeriens. However, it will be recalled, Tandja was the most zealous of the group, the all-time tyrant of the team.


It will also be recalled that [former President] Kountché, the brutal and violent dictator, pushed the ticket to the extreme. Upon assuming power, he declared the word "political" forbidden. In his eyes politics was a science too risky for the people, whose role must be reduced to obeying orders, listening to the radio and respecting the meetings of tribunals that applaud official speeches.


Politics is an area reserved for the president of the supreme military council, the head of State, who had accumulated titles to such prestigious posts as Minister of National Defense and Minister of the Interior and Regional Planning. We also know the admiration our dear president [Tandja] nourished for his former master. The hard-line Prefect of Tahoua [Tandja] and all-powerful Minister of the Interior [Tandja] profits from the short memory of Nigeriens, reappearing to them now as a politician who's gentle, engaging, and thoughtful.


Tandja, elected and re-elected President of the Republic, nostalgic for the dark times of national emergency, only thinks of casting suspicion on the country's democratic achievements; for him, these are no longer an obstacle to his power-grabbing and dictatorial ambitions. Perhaps more intelligent or better organized than previously thought, he has seized an opportunity to put his political machine in order, by means of a conflict that he could have stopped at the outset.


Step One

Introduce to the collective subconscious of Nigeriens the logic of war and the feeling that the country's existence is threatened, through a strong campaign of intoxication throughout the media that martyrizes the security forces. (Step One already successful.)

Step Two
Track down people from the North [Tuaregs], forcing them into exile and joining the MNJ rebels, though arbitrary arrests, torture and summary executions. (Step Two has already begun with success.)


Step Three
Give the military a taste of power and dazzle them with a potential return to military dictatorship, by declaring a national security alert (Step Three has already been implemented).

Step Four
Remain cleverly vague on the issues, by forbidding the media's access to information. (Step Four has already been achieved with great success).

Step Five
Discredit decentralization, by arresting local elected officials on the pretext of misappropriation of public funds. (Step Five is currently in progress in Niamey, Dosso, Maradi, Zinder and Agadez).

Step Six
Quench partisan militancy, by alienating political leaders on all sides, in order to calm the passions of a multiparty politics that is dear to the people. (Step Six, there has been gradual disappearance of the political opposition and critical spirit).

Step Seven
Gradually replace civilian administrative authorities with army officers. (Step Seven already in process, first the prefect of Arlit was replaced, and soon afterward, the prefets of Tchirozérine and Agadez).

Step Eight
Declare a state of emergency throughout the nation. (Step Eight, already initiated, as revealed by urban terrorism).

Step Nine
Suspend the Constitution and introduce a "State of Exception" [where the ruler transcends Constitutional law] in the best interests of the nation. (Step Nine will emerge by surprise, after an event carefully prepared in advance, and proportional to the decision.)

Stage Ten

Develop a new Constitution with a 97% vote, allowing the re-election of Tandja for an initial term of a Sixth Republic.

This is how the game is played, and our politicians will realize after a long delay that they have fallen into a trap. To trap the fish, some will be promoted to high office that will allow them the necessary access to the feeder [corruption]. (Nigeriens will finally return to the blind submission which seems to be ingrained in them.).

Second Hypothesis

Northern Niger is replete with substantial deposits of uranium. Mineral exploitation at Arlit and Akokan has already exhausted 70% of the water resources from the Talak aquifer. Exploitation at Imouraren and Teguida N'Tessoum will tap the Tchirozérine aquifer that supplies Agadez. Twenty years from now, there will be no more water in this vast desert region. Life will be more than compromised: it will be the great catastrophe for indigenous peoples.

Before reaching that point, they will be forced to move away from the mining towns that will emerge in their native territories. As a prelude to this terrifying and inexorable reality, and in complicity with the world powers interested in the precious ore, the region must be depopulated. It will take some time to contain the movements and upheavals of the people concerned. This calls for preventative measures.

The outside observer will say: What an abomination!
=> The poorest country is exhausting its wealth, in order to finance a conflict that will maintain it as the poorest, least developed country in the world.
=> To extract the precious ore, they are depleting all the region's water, in one of the most arid areas of the planet.

If Tandja's principal objective is the combination of these two hypotheses, which are intimately linked and interrelated, then perhaps he is not as mediocre as one had supposed.


Issouf Ag MAHA
On March 3, 2008


Original article published in French, with the full text on Vouature Simone, and excerpts on Targuinca.


Map showing the affected aquifer regions in Niger:

http://www.targuinca.org/documents/carte-nappe-concessions-uranium.pdf




February 18, 2008

Neocolonialism In Niger

Photo of an elderly Tuareg man in Agadez, Niger, by professional photographer Jason Hall, extremeboh, on Flickr.


Neocolonialism In Niger

"France has always sought to destroy the Tuaregs, for no good reason. France divided the Tuaregs between nations, and after Independence directed those she put in power in the new states to keep the Tuaregs always in the margins, and finish by exterminating them. . . . And now, in order to exploit Niger's wealth, France does everything to ignore democracy and quietly steal our uranium. France seeded hatred between the Hutu and the Tutsi, telling the Tutsi they were better and to have nothing to do with the Hutu, while at the same time giving military support to the Hutu military loyalists in power. France is a major manipulator and traitor. The people of Niger have understood France's manners, its salute "between the hands." Leave us in peace." -- SIDI mohamed, Agadez-Niger Forum.

The Tuaregs, like other Nigeriens, have embraced democracy as a way of life. Although Tuaregs in Niger are often described as "tribal," and although they fought in the past for a separate nation, they now consider themselves part of a modern state comprised of several ethnic groups encompassing many kinship-based clans and tribes.

All these peoples in fact have had a long history of interactions with one another, as part of a coherent geopolitical region, long before colonialism.

Today, they join multi-ethnic political parties, and they have come to feel it is their right to vote and elect their rulers. They believe that democracy offers a measure of equality, and a potential for development and real progress that they have not experienced since France invaded their territories a century ago and colonized them. They feel there is an opportunity for inclusion as citizens, which was denied them in the post-colonial military regimes.

They acknowledge that democracy is a new thing in Niger, and that it's had a rough start, with coup d'etats, clanism, government graft and ongoing discrimination being persistent problems up to the present. But they are also positive in their outlook, and hopeful that democracy can bring peace and progress to Niger.

Today, the Tuaregs are standing up for their rights. In a Tuareg-led, multi-ethnic political movement, the Niger Movement for Justice (MNJ), they have proclaimed that France has no place in sending soldiers to support local regimes that have turned into dictatorships and abused their power, destroying the fabric of democratic processes.

According to the MNJ, France wants to maintain its monopoly over valuable resources in its former colonies, and continue to reap the benefits of acquiring cheap uranium, oil and other resources, while giving nothing back to the local populations it is exploiting. France advances payments to the corrupt president of Niger, and these funds then become the carrot that keeps France's fingers in the uranium pie and the oil wells. The President and his cronies pocket the "special funds," while promising the people they will see development. The country receives no benefit. The people in Niger live in abject poverty and receive nothing in return for giving up their precious resources, while France lights up its skyscrapers and heats its homes with electricity made from the uranium they got cheaply in Niger.

Students want to know why: If African countries actually have such a wealth of crucial resources such as uranium and oil, then why are so many Africans living in terrible poverty? If the uranium and oil are worth so much, why isn't there any economic development?

Students want to know why: Why doesn't democracy seem to work in Africa? Is it because Africans are somehow so different from us that they can't understand how democracy works? Why do they let dictators come into power, and why is government corruption so rampant in Africa?

It's easy to see why:

If former colonizers put themselves into exchange relationships with Africans like they do with each other, there would be a more equitable return to Africans for their resources. But they don't do that. Niger gets only 5% of the profits from the uranium, and the Niger President and his associates pocket the money. The West takes corruption for granted and shrugs it off saying it can't be solved -- because it serves an economic purpose for the West.

If former colonizers didn't meddle in African politics and support corrupt regimes financially and militarily, the Africans would have a better chance of establishing a democracy. Africans have the same intelligence as everybody else, and they can see the value of democracy as well as anyone else. Democracy is always subject to problems, but for Africans, they have a special hurdle: Europe hinders democracy by supporting corrupt regimes, because Europe wants to keep the colonial benefit flowing for themselves. This is the essence of neocolonialism. The existence of post-colonial "modern" governments is a smokescreen for the new mode of European control over their former colonies. The parasitism continues.

Today, France has sent French soldiers into Niger -- to the Agadez region, where the MNJ Tuareg-led conflict has developed over the past year -- to help the current corrupt regime in its campaign against the MNJ, in the same way that France sent its troops to Chad last week to help the corrupt regime there.

In the case of the Niger Movement for Justice, this is the only group in Niger that has spoken out openly (on their website) against the problems of marginalization, ethnic hatred, genocide, lack of development and corruption. The only reason they are able to do so is because they are armed rebels: the Niger government refuses to discuss the issues; it has banned freedom of the press; the Niger army has gone among Tuareg civilians to rape, torture and murder them and destroy their livestock (confirmed by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch reports Dec. 19, 2007); the Niger government has arrested and intimidated citizens across the entire population into shutting up about the gross social inequalities and corruption that are keeping the country from becoming a democracy and making progress.

In the days before the genocide in Rwanda, France was supplying the Hutu-led government with weapons, which were then used to exterminate hundreds of thousands of Tutsi men, women and children. The situation in Niger now is beginning to resemble the one in Rwanda: an insecure political elite, corruption, lack of development, overpopulation, food and water insufficiency, lack of jobs, land shortages, severe poverty, malnutrition, mounting ethnic hatred as a result of government media campaigns, and a call for citizens' brigades and extermination of the Tuaregs.

How will democracy become a reality in Africa if Europe continues to interfere in this manner?

Will France be guilty of another Rwanda?

How can we transform the double-talk of neocolonialism into a fair chance for Africans to develop democratic governments, and make some progress on their own terms?

America and the United Nations should condemn France's military intervention in yet another African conflict.

Students want to know why: Why is there so much chaos in Africa? How can it be solved?

The chaos in Africa affects us all. If we cannot promote inclusiveness, development, and democracy in Africa, it will fall on us soon. It is very clear how we must do that. For starters, we must stop supporting dictatorships, and we must start promoting economic exchange that will ensure benefit to entire populations, not to corrupt government officials.


The Tuaregs know the solution to their problem:
the door to democracy
requires inclusion, equal rights,
open discussion, freedom of the press,
and freedom from gross discrimination and genocide.

February 06, 2008

Electricity and the Tuaregs


Photo of a lovely Tuareg girl in Niger, by professional photographer Jason Hall, extremeboh, on Flickr.


Electricity and the Tuaregs

What does electricity have to do with the Tuaregs?

Sometimes, not very often, we wonder where electricity comes from. It's a plug in the wall, and we flip the switch and it's there for us when we need it. But where does it come from, Beyond the Wall? Electricity is kind of mysterious. Is there a factory somewhere that makes electricity? What is it made from?

Less mysterious is the fuel we put in our cars, or at least it seems so. Most of us have heard of oil fields out there somewhere. We know it comes from the earth. There must be big stretches of land where the oil people go to get it and ship it to our gas stations.

France is a country that gets a whole lot of its electricity from a very far away place that's hard to get to -- in the Sahara desert. And Canada is a country that is hoping to get a lot of oil from the same place. Both these countries, just like the U.S., Britain, Japan, China, India, Russia and many other countries, are looking outside their own countries to get fuel, because they don't have enough.

The Sahara has a lot of fuel. There are uranium mines that supply a major portion of the world's uranium. And there are oil fields that have untold quantities of oil to be tapped.

A significant amount of the Sahara's uranium and oil are in a little-known country called Niger (not Nigeria!) that is mostly in the Sahara desert.

Most Americans think of the Sahara as a wasteland, a no-man's land, a place where there are no people because it's so hot and desolate.

So little do we know! In fact, the Sahara has been a busy place for thousands of years. It has been a major network of trade routes from sub-Saharan Africa to the Mediterranean, Asia and Europe.

Many, many years before America existed, and before Britain and France and Russia existed, there were people living in the Sahara who made a living by transporting goods across the desert, for hundreds and hundreds of miles through the massive dunes called ergs, the rugged mountains of volcanic origin, and the flat rocky regions called regs. These people were the Berber-speakers who lived west of the Egyptians, all across North Africa and in many parts of the Sahara. The Sahara has been a busy place, connecting many civilizations, for hundreds and thousands of years.

The Berber-speakers established their own cities in the Sahara, and named nearly every landmark in it. Some of the Berber-speakers were caravaneers; others kept gardens in the oases; and yet others herded camels, goats and sheep in the rural areas between towns and cities of the Sahara.

The descendants of these ancient people still exist. And they still live in the Sahara. Today they are called the Tuaregs. They refer to themselves as Kel Temajeq, the people who speak Temajeq, a Berber language.

In the areas where the oil fields are, the Tuaregs still operate caravans. In the areas where the uranium mines are, the Tuaregs still herd their camels, goats and sheep.

But something has changed. The uranium people and the oil people are making agreements with the rulers of Niger, and giving the rulers lots of money, in exchange for the right to go get the uranium and oil from the lands where the Tuaregs live.

The uranium people have already been at work for 40 years, taking the uranium from Niger and transforming it into electricity in France. Without the uranium from the lands where the Tuaregs live in Niger, French children could not watch their favorite TV shows after school, and office workers could not check their email and send messages back and forth all day. Things would not be very happy if it weren't for the wonderful uranium from the lands where the Tuaregs live.

But the French children and the office workers don't really think much about the fact that watching TV and checking email depends greatly on getting the uranium away from Niger. The uranium people working in Niger want to get the uranium as quickly as possible, without wasting a lot of money. So they let the radioactive waste products spill over into the water that the Tuareg people drink, and the land where they herd their livestock. They ought to take some safety measures and make sure they don't spill the radioactive waste, because it is making the Tuaregs who live there sick. The Tuareg children will not live as long because of it. Some of their parents will die early and leave their children before they have grown up. Their livestock get sick, too from the radioactivity, and the area is no longer safe to live, because of the radioactive dust all over the place.

What is really amazing is that the uranium people from France take the uranium, worth millions of dollars, and don't give anything back to the Tuareg people. They may think they do, but they don't. What happens is that the uranium people give money to Niger's rulers, who live far away, and keep it for themselves and use it for their own purposes. Why don't the uranium people give some of the money directly to the Tuaregs, so they can make their community nicer -- wouldn't that be a decent thing to do? The answer is that the Niger rulers won't allow it. The Niger rulers want all of the money for themselves and their friends. The only way the uranium people can get the uranium, is to give the money to Niger's rulers.

The uranium people need workers for the uranium mines, but they hire very few of the Tuareg people who live near the mines, so that they could make some money. Instead they hire the people that Niger's rulers want them to hire, because otherwise, Niger's rulers wouldn't let them into the country to take the uranium. It's the same with all of the other countries who want to go into Niger and take the uranium. China even built its own city near the uranium mines, so that they could just be by themselves and not be bothered by the Tuaregs.

When the Canadian oil people go to Niger, it will be the same thing. They will have to give money to Niger's rulers, and hire the people that Niger's rulers want them to hire, in order to get the oil.

Most people who use electricity and oil don't really understand this situation. Electricity and oil are basic essentials in modern countries. Many people heat their homes with electricity and oil. In Niger, many homes do not have electricity, and few people own cars to drive. Isn't it ironic that Niger has so much uranium, but so little electricity?

The Tuareg people who herd camels, goats and sheep have to sit up all night in front of a campfire to keep themselves warm. They don't have TV sets and computers. They live in tents, and small mud houses without electricity. They don't have jobs, except to produce the milk they drink, by herding livestock. Many Tuareg families do not have enough to eat, because there have been droughts lately, and because the grain they eat costs so much. In order to buy anything, they would have to sell some of their camels, goats and sheep. And if they kept doing that, they would no longer have any livestock left. Many Tuaregs are impoverished to the point that they cannot even buy the food they need, and they are malnourished and starving.

The Tuaregs live on the only land in Niger that has energy resouces of value on it -- uranium and oil. The Tuaregs have tried to get something back from the uranium that is being taken from their lands. Normal democratic processes are not available to them, and so they have rebelled. The Niger rulers have sent out their army to kill the Tuareg rebels. The army was defeated. They couldn’t make the Tuareg rebels quiet down, so they tried to scare them into silence by torturing and killing innocent Tuareg people who were easy to get to -- the unprotected families. Still, the Tuareg rebels are speaking out, the only way they can, on the Internet. This has angered the Niger government, and they say they won't talk with the rebels about their grievances. In order to provide development to the North, the government would have to use some of the revenues from the uranium mines.

The rebels feel they have a just cause for rebelling, because they made an agreement 13 years ago with the Niger rulers, but Niger's government didn't abide by it, and refuses to talk about it, because they want to keep the uranium money for themselves. Part of the agreement was to allocate some of the money from the uranium for the Tuaregs to build their communities, and to create jobs for Tuaregs. The Peace Accords of 1995 is a legally-binding document. Here is what the agreement said:

Agreement establishing a permanent peace between the Government of the Republic of Niger and the Organization of Armed Resistance (ORA)

April 24, 1995

ARTICLE 22: … the Government is committed to take all necessary steps in order to continue and accelerate the efforts of investment in pastoral zone by the implementation of new development strategies aimed at:

B. In the area of mines and industries: The mines remain a national asset whose benefits should enable the development of all regions. This requires:

Supporting the development of the regional economy by implementing incentives to create new jobs for local people [Tuaregs] who will receive a priority in the recruitment.

Transferring a portion of national resources generated by the mining to local governments [the communities where Tuaregs live].

People who use electricity that's made from the uranium don't really know what is involved in getting the uranium. They don't realize that the companies who get the uranium are taking it from people who are poor, and not giving anything back to them.

The uranium people spend millions of dollars to get the uranium out of Niger. They give thousands of dollars to Niger's rulers who allow them to take the uranium. But they don't give anything back to the Tuareg people, except radioactive waste that's making them sick.

Ethnic hatred is a problem in Niger. But a major contributing factor is the greed of the uranium and oil companies -- and ultimately the people abroad who use these products.

The Tuareg people understand the situation, because it affects them severely. Their rebel leaders have spoken out about it, because they want the government to live up to the agreement that was established 13 years ago. The agreement was very clear: the government was supposed to provide jobs and development for the Tuareg people, by using the uranium money. The agreement was hard won: the Tuaregs fought for several years to get it. Many of their people died, or fled as refugees, trying to get that agreement. The government fooled them: they got the Tuaregs to put down their arms, and then they continued to treat them badly. Now they are refusing to talk about it, and trying to think of ways to kill more Tuareg people by creating an atmosphere of hatred in the country and pitting people against one another.

This week, the uranium company, called Areva, laid off 15 of their local Tuareg employees. Each Tuareg who worked there was supporting dozens of impoverished relatives. It is the middle of winter, and there are no other jobs for them where they live.

Niger's ruling elites are making new demands in its campaign against the Tuareg people, and the uranium company is going along with them.

What about the responsibility of the people who are benefiting from the electricity and oil?

What about the responsibility of the companies who are taking these resources?

What about the responsibility of the government to abide by its agreement?

What about the responsibility of the world powers who helped set up a democracy in Niger? How can they expect democracy to survive in Africa if they do not help keep fledgling democracies functioning as democracies, instead of dictatorships?


Peace Petition "Peace In Niger"

FRANCAIS:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/plpanf07/petition.html

ENGLISH:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/pinnne07/petition.html

DEUTSCH:
http://www.PetitionOnline.com/fidrnd07/petition.html